A united call to action
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A united call to action

References

  1. United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition, The Impact of High Food Prices on Maternal and Child Nutrition, Geneva, United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition, 14 October 2008 (www.unscn.org/Publications/html/CFS_SCNB.pdf accessed 8 March 2009).

  2. World Bank, The Financial Crisis: Implications for Developing Countries, Washington, World Bank, 13 November 2008 (http://www.worldbank.org accessed 8 March 2009).

  3. Ibid.

  4. Steven AB et al., Macro shocks and micro outcomes: child nutrition during Indonesia’s crisis, Economics and Human Biology, 2004 (2). p. 40.

  5. Darnton-Hill IP et al., Micronutrient deficiencies and gender: social and economic costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2005, 81(S): 1198S–1205S.

  6. Sanghvi T, Ross J, Heymann H. Why is reducing vitamin and mineral deficiencies critical for development? Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2007, 28(1S). p. 167.

  7. Sommer, A et al., Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality: A randomised controlled community trial, The Lancet, 1986, (1): 1169-1173.

  8. Beaton GH et al. Effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation in the control of young child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination, Sub-committee on Nutrition State-of-the-Art Series: Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 13. Geneva, United Nations, 1993.

  9. Whitcher JP, Srinivasan M, Upadhyay MP, Corneal blindness: a global perspective, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2001, 79(3). p. 217.

  10. Beaton GH et al. Effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation in the control of young child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination, Sub-committee on Nutrition State-of-the-Art Series: Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 13. Geneva, United Nations, 1993.

  11. UNICEF, The Micronutrient Initiative, Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency: A Global Progress Report, Ottawa, Ontario, 2004, p. 20.

  12. Ibid. p. 7.

  13. Zimmerman MB, Jooste PL, Pandav CS, Iodine-deficiency disorders, The Lancet, 2008, 372(9645). p. 1251-1262.

  14. UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children, 2009, pp. 5 and 51. UNICEF states that 536,000 women die annually from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth and that 25% of maternal deaths are caused by haemorrage.

  15. Lancet Series on child development: Susan P Walker,Theodore D Wachs, Julie Meeks Gardner, Betsy Lozoff , Gail A Wasserman, Ernesto Pollitt, Julie A Carter, and the International Child Development Steering Group. Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries (2007).

  16. Lazzerini M, Ronfani L. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children (Review), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008 (3), p. 3.

  17. Bryce J et al., WHO estimates the causes of death in children, The Lancet, 2005, 365(9465), p. 1147-1152.

  18. Izincg, Systematic Reviews of Zinc Interventions, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2009, (30) 1.

  19. Ibid.

  20. Zinc Investigators’ Collaborative Group, Prevention of diarrhoea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials, The Journal of Pediatrics, 1999, (135). p. 689-97.

  21. Christianson A, Howson CP, Modell B, March of Dimes Global Report on Birth Defects: The Hidden Toll of Dying and Disabled Children, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 2006, p. 33.

  22. Rice AL, West KP, Black R, Vitamin A Deficiency: Counting the Cost in Women’s Lives. In Ezzati M et al, eds. Burden of Diseases Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004, p.249.

  23. Black RE et al., Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences, The Lancet, 2008, 371(9608), p253.

  24. World Health Organization, Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005, WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency. Geneva, World Health Organization, in press,

  25. Black RE et al, Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences, The Lancet, 2008, 371(9608), p. 16.

  26. UNICEF, Progress for Children: A Report Card on Maternal Mortality, New York, UNICEF, 2008, p. 4.

  27. Stoltzfus RJ, Mullany L, Black RE, Iron Deficiency Anaemia, in In Ezzati M et al, eds. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Diseases Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004, p. 164.

  28. UNICEF, Sustainable Elimination of Iodine Deficiency: Progress since the 1990 World Summit for Children, New York, UNICEF, 2008, p. 5.

  29. de Benoist B et al, Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO Global Database on Anaemia, Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008, p. 1.

  30. Ibid.

  31. Christianson A, Howson CP, Modell B,March of Dimes Global Report on Birth Defects: The Hidden Toll of Dying and Disabled Children, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 2006, pp. 28.

  32. March of Dimes, Quick References and Fact Sheets: Spina Bifida, White Plains, NY, March of Dimes, (www.marchofdimes.com)

  33. Christianson A, Howson CP, Modell B, March of Dimes Global Report on Birth Defects: The Hidden Toll of Dying and Disabled Children, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 2006, p. 29.

  34. World Health Organization, Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005, WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency. Geneva, World Health Organization, in press.

  35. Whitcher JP, Srinivasan M, Upadhyay MP, Corneal blindness: a global perspective, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2001, 79(3). p. 217.

  36. Ibid.

  37. de Benoist B et al, Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO Global Database on Anaemia, Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008, p. 7.

  38. Shekar M, Heaver R, Lee Y, Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development: A Strategy for Large-Scale Action, Washington, World Bank, 2006, p. 26.

  39. de Benoist B et al., Iodine deficiency in 2007: Global progress since 2003, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2008 29(3), p. 195-202. Benoist B et al., Iodine deficiency in 2007: Global progress since 2003.

  40. Kemmer, TM et al., Iron Deficiency Is Unacceptably High in Refugee Children from Burma; Journal of Nutrition, 2003, (133), p. 4143-4149.

  41. Seal A, Prudhon C, Assessing micronutrient deficiencies in emergencies: Current practice and future directions, Geneva, United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition, 2007.

  42. UNICEF, Zambia Child Health Week: An approach to delivery of child survival interventions, New York, UNICEF, (www.unicef.org/evaluation/files/zambia.doc accessed 8 March 2009)

  43. UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children 2009, New York, UNICEF, p. 125.

  44. Ibid.

  45. UNICEF, Vitamin A Supplementation: A Decade of Progress, New York, UNICEF, 2007, p. 1.

  46. Ibid. p. 9.

  47. Ibid. p. 7.

  48. World Health Organization, Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005, Geneva, World Health Organization, in press.

  49. de Benoist B et al., Iodine deficiency in 2007: Global progress since 2003, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2008 29(3), p. 195-202.

  50. UNICEF, Sustainable Elimination of Iodine Deficiency: Progress since the 1990 World Summit for Children, New York, UNICEF, 2008, p. 9.

  51. UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children 2009, New York, UNICEF, p. 125.

  52. UNICEF, Sustainable Elimination of Iodine Deficiency: Progress since the 1990 World Summit for Children, 2008, New York, UNICEF, p. 15.

  53. Ibid. p. 16.

  54. Ibid. p. 42.

  55. Ibid. p. 16.

  56. Ibid. p. 17.

  57. Food and Agriculture Organization, Global cereal supply and demand brief: Crop prospects and food situation, April 2008, FAO, (www.fao.org/docrep/010/ai465e/ai465e04.htm accessed 9 March 2009).

  58. Centers for Disease Control, Trends in Wheat-Flour Fortification with Folic Acid and Iron – Worldwide, 2004 and 2007, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 11 January 2008, (57)1, p.8.

  59. Centers for Disease Control, Trends in Wheat-Flour Fortification with Folic Acid and Iron – Worldwide, 2004 and 2007, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 11 January 2008, (57)1, p.8.

  60. Ibid.

  61. Flour Fortification Initiative, Map of Global Progress, FFI, Atlanta, (www.sph.emory.edu/wheatflour/globalmap.php. accessed 9 March 2009).

  62. Horton S, Mannar V, Wesley A, Best Practices Paper: Food Fortification, September 2008, in press, p. 5.

  63. Maberly GF, Stanley FJ, Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid: an overdue public health opportunity, The Medical Journal of Australia, 2005, 183 (7), p. 342-343.

  64. Centers for Disease Control, Trends in Wheat-Flour Fortification with Folic Acid and Iron – Worldwide, 2004 and 2007, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 11 January 2008, (57)1, p.8.

  65. Department of Health (Government of South Africa), GAIN, UNICEF, A reflection of the South African Maize Meal and Wheat Flour Fortification Programme (2004 – 2007), The Department of Health, Pretoria, p. 32.

  66. Sayed AR et al, Decline in the Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects Following Folic Acid Fortification and Its Cost-Benefit in South Africa, Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 2008, (84)4, p. 221-216.

  67. Horton S, Mannar V, Wesley A, Best Practices Paper: Food Fortification, September 2008, in press, p. 5.

  68. Kennedy G, Burlingame B, Nguyen VN, Nutritional contribution of rice and impact of biotechnology and biodiversity in rice-consuming countries, Food and Agriculture Organization, Sustainable rice production for food security, Proceedings of the 20th Session of the International Rice Commission, Bangkok, Thailand, 23-26 July 2002, p. 1.

  69. Alavi S et al, Rice Fortification in Developing Countries: A Critical Review of the Technical and Economic Feasibility, USAID, Washington, April 2008, p. 29.

  70. Horton S, Mannar V, Wesley A, Best Practices Paper: Food Fortification, September 2008, in press, p. 17.

  71. Ibid. p. 18.

  72. David Lane and Carin Isabel-Knoop, Two Wheels Turning: Partnership in China’s Soy Sauce Fortification Program, Business Innovation to Combat Malnutrition – Case Study Series, World Bank Institute, p. 3.

  73. Lane D, Isabel-Knoop C, Two Wheels Turning: Partnership in China’s Soy Sauce Fortification Program, Business Innovation to Combat Malnutrition – Case Study Series, World Bank Institute, Washington, 2007, p. 10.

  74. Sprinkles Global Health Initiative, Sprinkles as a Delivery System, SGHI, Toronto, (www.sghi.org/about_sprinkles/delivery_system.html accessed 9 March 2009).

  75. Schauer C et al., Process evaluation of the distribution of micronutrient Sprinkles in over 10,000 Mongolian infants using a non-governmental organization (NGO) program model [abstract]. In: International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group [INACG] Symposium; 2003 February 6; Marrakech, Morocco Washington (D.C.): ILSI Research Foundation. p 42.

  76. Micronutrient Initiative, Reducing Anemia in Bolivian Children using “Chispitas” Multiple Micronutrient Sachets, MI, Ottawa, (www.micronutrient.org/CMFiles/MI%20Around%20the%20World/Americas/Chispistas-in-Bolivia.pdf accessed 9 March 2009), p.3.

  77. Micronutrient Initiative, Haiti Country Profile, MI, Ottawa, (www.micronutrient.org/English/view.asp?x=600 accessed 9 March 2009).

  78. Helen Keller International, Anemia throughout the lifecycle in Nepal, Nutrition Bulletin, 2002, (1) 2.

  79. Nepal, Ministry of Health and Population, Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2006, Ministry of Health and Population, Katmandu, 2006.

  80. UNICEF et al., VMDs Programming – What Works in Scale, unpublished, p. 16.

  81. Micronutrient Initiative, Annual Report 2007-2008, MI, Ottawa, (accessed 9 March 2009). p.10

  82. Caulfield LE et al., Stunting, wasting, and micronutrient deficiency disorders, in Jamison DT et al. (eds), Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006, p. 561.

  83. UNICEF, Common water and sanitation related diseases, UNICEF, New York, (www.unicef.org/wes/index_wes_related.html accessed 9 March 2009).

  84. UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children 2008, UNICEF, New York, p. 125.

  85. UNICEF, WHO, Joint Statement: Clinical Management of Acute Diarrhoea, UNICEF, New York, 2004.

  86. UNICEF, Evidence for the safety and efficacy of zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhoea, UNICEF, New York, (www.unicef.org/supply/index_42658.html accessed 10 March 2009).

  87. UNICEF, Zinc for management of diarrhoea: Consultation with pharmaceutical manufacturers, presentation, October 2008, (origin-www.unicef.org/supply/files/4a-__Zinc_Jan_Komrska_and_Francisco_Blanco(1).pdf accessed 10 March 2009).

  88. Ibid.

  89. Dary O et al., The Evidence on Micronutrient Programs: A Selected Review, 2008, USAID, A2Z, Academy for Educational Development, p. 35.

  90. Copenhagen Consensus, The world’s best investment: Vitamins for undernourished children, according to top economists, including 5 Nobel Laureates, Press Release, 30 May 2008.

  91. Ibid.

  92. Micronutrient Initiative, Vitamin A: The scope oin f the problem, MI, Ottawa (www.micronutrient.org/English/View.asp?x=577&id=440 accessed 10 March 2009).

  93. Horton S et al., Best Practice Paper - Micronutrient Supplements for Child Survival (Vitamin A and Zinc), Copenhagen Consensus Center, Copenhagen, 2008, p. 14.

  94. Caulfield LE et al., Stunting, wasting, and micronutrient deficiency disorders, in Jamison DT et al. (eds), Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006, p. 561.

  95. Fiedler JL, The cost of child health days: a case study of Ethiopia’s enhanced outreach strategy, Social Sectors Development Strategies, 2007, Washington DC, draft (mimeo).

  96. Robberstad, BT et al., Cost-effectiveness of zinc as adjunct therapy for acute childhood diarrhea in developing countries. WHO Bulletin, 2004, 82(7), p. 523-31.

  97. Ibid.

  98. Horton S, Alderman H, Rivera JA, Copenhagen Consensus 2008 Challenge Paper: Hunger and Malnutrition, Copenhagen Consensus Center, Copenhagen, May 2008, p. 32 and 33.

  99. Horton S, Mannar V, Wesley A, Best Practices Paper: Food Fortification, September 2008, in press, p. 19.

  100. Centers for Disease Control, Trends in Wheat-Flour Fortification with Folic Acid and Iron – Worldwide, 2004 and 2007, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 11 January 2008, (57)1, p.8.

  101. Baltussen R, Knai C, Mona S, Iron fortification and iron supplementation are cost-effective interventions to reduce iron deficiency in four subregions of the world, The Journal of nutrition, 2004, 134(10), p. 2678-84.

  102. Ibid.

  103. Caulfield LE et al., Stunting, wasting, and micronutrient deficiency disorders, in Jamison DT et al. (eds), Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006, p. 561.

  104. Horton S, Alderman H, Rivera JA, Copenhagen Consensus 2008 Challenge Paper: Hunger and Malnutrition, Copenhagen Consensus Center, Copenhagen, May 2008, p. 32 and 33.

  105. Ibid.

  106. Horton S, Mannar V, Wesley A, Best Practices Paper: Food Fortification, September 2008, in press, p. 21.

  107. Meenakshi JV et al., How cost-effective is biofortification in combating micronutrient malnutrition? An ex-ante assessment, 2007, HarvestPlus Working, Paper No. 2, IFPRI, Washington DC.

  108. Ibid.

  109. Sharieff W, Horton SE, Zlotkin S, Economic Gains of a Home Fortification Program; Evaluation of “Sprinkles” from the Provider’s Perspective, Canadian Journal of Public Health, January-February 2006, p. 1.

  110. Ibid.